Finite State Machines in JavaScript

I like finite state machines and I wanted to try metaprogramming in JavaScript ever since I’d seen Adam McCrea presentation on the topic.

The result is an FSM builder in JavaScript. Machine descriptions look like my test machine here:

var Machine = { with (fsm) {
  onUnexpectedEvent(function() { ... });

  state('start', 'initial')
      .doing(function() { ... })
    .onExiting(function() { ... });

    .onUnexpectedEvent(function() { ... })
    .onEntering(function() { ... })
      .onlyIf(function() { return true_or_false })

  state('finish', 'final');

function TestMachine() {}
// amend TestMachine.prototype here all the way you want
TestMachine.prototype.phew = function() { ... };
TestMachine.prototype = new Machine(TestMachine.prototype);

There’s no documentation yet, but thorough unit testsspecs
using Nicolás Sanguinetti’s very nice js-spec framework.

Something to look at:

The script is meant to be usable independently of and play nicely with any other libraries.

The manner in which an FSM is attached to classes/objects is still rather convoluted. The general idea is that it (a) should be possible to insert the FSM as the first link in the prototype chain and (b) should be possible to directly attach it to an existing object. I’d appreciate suggestions how to make this nice and shiny.

5 thoughts on “Finite State Machines in JavaScript

  1. Good stuff! 🙂 I’ll see what I can do for the specs so they look a bit nicer, as the results are pretty rough right now 😛

    Regarding the code used to initialize a FSM, most of it is repetitive, so you could extract it into a static method of FSM. And for the declaration of events and states in your machine, you could “yield” the machine description object to a “block”:

    var Machine = {
    m.state(‘start’, …);


    Thing.prototype = new Machine(Thing.prototype);

    Then, the function would look something like this: = function(block) {
    var fsm = new FSM;
    return fsm.buildMachine();

    (And you can still use with(m) in the “block” if calling methods explicitly bothers you :))

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  3. How does a state machine of this type handle complex events?

    Events that are triggered as the result of, say, the accumulation of multiple events or signals. Say there are five events that each need to be received before the FSM sends a sixth event.

    Do these JS FSMs provide direct support for that sort of thing, or do I have to piece it together with bit fields and a guard expression?

    Kevin Prichard

  4. Kevin, I’m not sure we are on the same page regarding how an FSM is supposed to work. In your example, you’d have to create a specific state the machine is in after receiving each of the events. That’s no problem if these events are supposed to occur in a given order. If they can occur in any order this won’t work well; in that case, you are better of with bit fields and a guard.

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